nature biomedical engineering, christopher puleo, ge research, shin lab, albany medical college, herzog lab, yale school of medicine, stavros zanos, victoria cotero, jeffrey ashe, human clinical pilot study

GE researchers (left to right): Victoria Cotero, a senior scientist in biosciences, senior electrical engineer Jeffrey Ashe and senior biomedical engineer Christopher Puleo, with a prototype of the ultrasound modulation device at GE’s research campus in Niskayuna, NY. (Courtesy: General Electric)

Ultrasound neuromodulation can prevent the onset of hyperglycaemia or reverse type 2 diabetes in laboratory mice, rats and pigs, according to new research published in Nature Biomedical Engineering.

A multi-institutional team of scientists used peripheral focused ultrasound (pFUS) to stimulate the nerves controlling the hepatic portal system (which returns blood from the digestive tract and spleen to the liver), both neuronal liver–brain pathways. The team observed enhanced insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake and energy substrate utilization. The stimulation improved whole-body glucose homoeostasis, specifically the stability of maintaining blood sugar towards healthy normal levels.

“The use of ultrasound could be a game-changer in how bioelectronic medicine, the use of electronic devices to modulate a body’s nervous system, is used and applied to disease, such as type 2 diabetes,” comments Christopher Puleo of GE Research. “Non-pharmaceutical and device-based methods to augment or replace the current drug-treatments may add a therapeutic choice for physicians and patients in the future.”

This milestone research was a multi-year collaborative effort by engineers and scientists at GE Research, the DiCarlo Lab of UCLA Samueli School of Engineering, the Shin Lab of Albany Medical College, the Chavan and Zanos labs at Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research of Northwell Health, and the Herzog Lab at Yale School of Medicine. “The research begins to mechanistically bridge short- and long-term physiological and metabolic effects of neuromodulation, a missing link in how we understand, optimize and deploy clinically neuromodulation therapies,” comments co-author Stavros Zanos.

The study’s objective was to determine if and how image-targeted pulsed ultrasound could modulate peripheral neurometabolic pathways. The researchers first examined Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and diet-induced obesity rodent models of type 2 diabetes. Each animal underwent image-guided localization and marking of the porta hepatis (the anatomical location of the hepatoportal nerve plexus). The team then directed non-invasive pFUS at the porta hepatis, performing 3 min ultrasound treatments once daily, to modulate neurons within the hepatoportal plexus.

The ultrasound was delivered using a 1.1 MHz pFUS stimulation probe that generated ultrasonic stimulus with 200 mV per pulse, 150 burst cycles and a 500 µs burst period. The team also delivered sham treatments to control animals, which received all steps of the treatment except for activation of the pFUS transducer.

nature biomedical engineering, christopher puleo, ge research, shin lab, albany medical college, herzog lab, yale school of medicine, stavros zanos, victoria cotero, jeffrey ashe, human clinical pilot study

Diabetes treatment: The team is using ultrasound technology to modulate the body’s nervous system. (Courtesy: General Electric)

When pFUS was performed daily on ZDF rats for 40 days, the treatment prevented the onset of hyperglycaemia (high blood glucose), attenuated hyperinsulinemia (excess levels of insulin in the blood) compared with sham-treated controls, and maintained blood glucose at levels comparable to non-diabetic rats. After 20 days of treatment, the researchers interchanged a subset of treated and sham rats. pFUS decreased circulating glucose in the severely hyperglycaemic animals that were previous sham controls. Three days after pFUS stopped, the group that had received treatment began to develop hyperglycaemia.

The team observed similar results in the diet-induced obesity models, including reduced blood glucose, with normal levels sustained for at least five weeks following treatment. “The pFUS stimulation was effective with both genetic and diet-induced models of type 2 diabetes,” says co-principal investigator Victoria Cotero, of GE Research.

The researchers performed similar treatments on mice and miniature pigs, showing the pFUS effect on glucose tolerance and glucose utilization, and are continuing the pre-clinical research. “We are still determining the frequency of treatments needed to maintain the reversal of diabetes under different stimulation parameters,” comments GE Research’s Jeffrey Ashe.

A human clinical pilot study to evaluate the effect of hepatic ultrasound on whole-body insulin sensitivity and tolerability in individuals with type 2 diabetes has just been completed. After fasting for 10 hr, participants received a 15 min pFUS treatment targeting the porta hepatis for three consecutive days.

Sponsored by GE Research, the study aimed to evaluate the effect of liver ultrasound treatment on changes from baseline in whole-body insulin sensitivity, glucose intolerance and insulin secretion, to evaluate the impact on glucose metabolism, and to test safety and tolerability. The researchers are currently preparing the findings for publication.

TECH NEWS RELATED

Results of a 2020 UK survey for the use of online treatment monitoring solutions for IMRT/VMAT

Join the audience for a live webinar at 3 p.m. BST on 24 May 2022 exploring the results and insights from the survey that outlines options for online treatment monitoring Numerous commercial technologies for online treatment monitoring (OTM) in radiotherapy (RT) are currently available including electronic portal imaging device (EPID) ...

View more: Results of a 2020 UK survey for the use of online treatment monitoring solutions for IMRT/VMAT

Cherenkov light could enable dosimetry of molecular radiation therapy

Developing a dosimetry technique: Spectrally-integrated Cherenkov light intensity at the patient surface for a molecular radiation treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma, with radioisotope uptake distributed in the tumour. (Courtesy: CC BY 4.0/Biomed. Opt. Express 10.1364/BOE.448139) Molecular radiation therapy (MRT) is a treatment in which radioisotopes given orally or intravenously ...

View more: Cherenkov light could enable dosimetry of molecular radiation therapy

Computational model maps patterns of neurodegeneration across the brain

Analysing the brain: Graphic representations of the first 10 inter-patient patterns of variation in brain glucose uptake, called “eigenbrains”. The median and interquartile range (IQR) intensities are also shown. (Courtesy: CC BY 4.0/Nat. Commun. 10.1038/s41467-022-29047-4) Memory loss, difficulty finding words, trouble with navigating even in familiar neighbourhoods. These are ...

View more: Computational model maps patterns of neurodegeneration across the brain

Laser plasma accelerators unlock potential for radiobiology studies with protons

Translational research: Researchers have performed the first controlled irradiation of tumours in mice using laser-accelerated protons. (Courtesy: HZDR/Juniks) Laser plasma accelerators (LPAs) propel particles to high energies over short distances using intense, ultrashort pulses of laser light. These accelerators can supply high-quality particle beams for radiobiological studies that will ...

View more: Laser plasma accelerators unlock potential for radiobiology studies with protons

Fast electrons accelerate the production of medical isotopes

Generating molybdenum-99: In a record-breaking experiment, the ELBE electron accelerator at HZDR irradiated a molybdenum-100 target for 115 hours with a high-brilliance electron beam. (Courtesy: HZDR/Jürgen Jeibmann) A new method for producing medical radioisotopes has passed its first milestone, by exposing a target to an electron beam at energy ...

View more: Fast electrons accelerate the production of medical isotopes

Deep learning can decrease radiation dose in paediatric CT scans

Reducing the scan dose: Contrast-enhanced low-dose CT images of a 4-year old boy, reconstructed using hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR), model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) and deep learning-based reconstruction (DLR). (Courtesy: Yasunori Nagayama) Deep learning-based reconstruction (DLR), an emerging technique for reconstructing CT images, uses a convolutional neural network to produce ...

View more: Deep learning can decrease radiation dose in paediatric CT scans

Machine learning makes its mark on medical imaging and therapy

Advanced computation: Artificial intelligence techniques such as deep learning and machine learning could enhance many areas of medicine. (Courtesy: iStock/metamorworks) Artificial intelligence has potential to improve the operation of many essential tasks in various fields of medicine and biomedicine – from dealing with the massive amount of data generated ...

View more: Machine learning makes its mark on medical imaging and therapy

Femtosecond fibre lasers get ready to shine as HÜBNER Photonics eyes ultrafast markets

With the acquisition of VALO Innovations in the final quarter of last year, HÜBNER Photonics has added ultrashort-pulse fibre lasers to an already diverse product offering Granular detail: femtosecond lasers were used to produce this multiphoton microscopy image of lung tissue. (Courtesy: M L Groot, Biophotonics and Medical Imaging, Vrije ...

View more: Femtosecond fibre lasers get ready to shine as HÜBNER Photonics eyes ultrafast markets

Imaging innovation sharpens the view for radiotherapy clinics

End-to-end patient specific QA with RadCalc – why it is important to stay up to date

Melanin-targeted PET probe tracks down malignant melanoma lesions

APOLLO lasers ensure precise, repeatable patient positioning in the treatment room

Deep learning speeds triage of brain scans

Could optical brain imaging helmets be the future of wearable technology?

MR-guided magnetic seeds seek, heat and destroy tumours

Dark-field CT edges ever nearer to clinical applications

Immunotherapy plus a burst of radiation treats brain tumours in mice

Anthropomorphic STEEV phantom underpins independent auditing of SRS programmes

Three-prong photothermal therapy eliminates tumours in mice

Machine learning and advanced imaging improve prediction of heart attacks

OTHER TECH NEWS

Top Car News Car News