climate, cop26, climate change
Contributions of nitrogen dioxide emissions (Credit: NASA)

Most marine and coastal water ecosystems worldwide suffer from eutrophication. It is the result of an enrichment of nutrients in the water body, like phosphorus and nitrogen.  Most common consequences are a proliferation of algae, reduced water transparency, and oxygen depletion. Fighting eutrophication is a major societal task and many international directives and agreements on reducing nutrient loads into the sea exist. To implement nutrient load reduction measures is very expensive and often causes conflicts.

Our question is how does ongoing climate change affect eutrophication and its management?  We focus on nitrogen because its availability mainly determines the primary productivity in seas. Beside sedimentation, denitrification is the most important regulating ecosystem service provided by the sea, because it removes nitrogen (N) to the atmosphere and controls eutrophication. Denitrification is a spatially and temporally highly variable process and largely depends on temperature and nitrogen concentrations in the water. In general, it is assumed that climate change and increasing temperatures favor denitrification and improve the cleaning capacity of our seas.

However, these internal processes interact with the external supply of nitrogen, entering with large rivers.  In river basins, the consequences of climate change on nitrogen loads are much harder to predict and differ between regions. Major driving factors are changes in nitrogen concentrations and water budgets, resulting from changes of precipitation pattern in river basins.

We apply an ecosystem model for the Baltic Sea and simulate denitrification rates for the present situation and for a future climate (scenario A1B). We focus on three major, contrasting river basins, namely Odra (Germany/Poland), Vistula (Poland) and Neva (Russia). By linking the ecological model with regional economic calculations, we assess how changing river loads in a future climate interact with changing denitrification in the sea, calculate the monetary consequences for river basin management approaches and discuss the management implications.

In all our Baltic case studies over 90% of the entering nitrogen loads are subject to denitrification, mainly in coastal waters. For the climate change scenario (A1B), our approach suggests reduced riverine N-loads of 7690 t/a (Odra), 6410 t/a (Vistula) and increased loads of 3200 t/a for the Neva. At the same time, our model results suggest an increased denitrification of nitrogen loads by 9.1% (Odra) and 9.9% (Neva) and minor changes with respect to the Vistula loads.

In combination, in all three river basins, climate change helps to reach policy targets, namely lower nitrogen concentrations in the adjacent coastal sea, at lower costs. The monetary benefit of load reduction measures that do not have to be implemented because of climate change are estimated 11,270 million €/a for the Odra, 2,000 million €/a for the Vistula and 92 million €/a  for the Neva.

The valuations strongly depend on the assumed climate change scenario and the economic approach but indicate that climate change effects differ much between river basins and need to be taken into account in nutrient load reduction management plans.

These findings were described in the article entitled Climate change effects on denitrification and associated avoidance costs in three Baltic river basin – coastal sea systems, published in the Journal of Coastal Conservation. This work was led by Gerald Schernewski from the Leibniz Institute for Baltic Research.

TECH NEWS RELATED

Trends In Population Flow During China’s Spring Festival

“China-Shanghai-YuGarden-the Lantern Festival-2012” by north sea dreamer via Wikimedia Commons licensed under CC-BY-SA 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en In our recent study titled “The rich-club phenomenon of China’s population flow network during the country’s spring festival.” published in the journal Applied Geography, the rich-club phenomenon of China’s population flow network during the country’s ...

View more: Trends In Population Flow During China’s Spring Festival

Inchworm: How This Caterpillar (Turned Moth) Inspired An New Exercise Workout

Johann1127 via Pixabay, CC0 The inchworm exercise is intended to work out multiple joints and increase both endurance and strength throughout the entire body. It was also inspired by a kind of caterpillar, the “inchworm” caterpillars that are the larval forms of moths in the Geometridae family. The way the ...

View more: Inchworm: How This Caterpillar (Turned Moth) Inspired An New Exercise Workout

Electromagnetic Processing Of Sintered Powder Metal Parts

“Spark Plasma Sintering” by the Idaho National Laboratory via Flickr is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Sintering is the process of compacting a material, usually in powdered form, into a solid mass using heat or pressure, but without melting the material. It is a manufacturing technology that dates back to ...

View more: Electromagnetic Processing Of Sintered Powder Metal Parts

Water Reuse And The Circular Economy

Credit: José Manuel Suárez/Wikipedia. Image licensed under CC-BY 2.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en Water is essential for human survival and well-being and plays an important role in many sectors of the economy. However, water resources are irregularly distributed over space and time, and they are under pressure due to human activity and economic ...

View more: Water Reuse And The Circular Economy

Clinical Cancer Drugs Identified As Inhibitors Of Inflammatory Signaling

Leucemia mieloide cronica (LMC) (credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chronic_Myeloid_Leukemia_smear_2009-04-09.JPG by Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourao via Wikimedia Commons is licensed under CC-BY SA 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en) Imatinib (sold as Gleevec) is a breakthrough cancer drug approved in 2001 for the treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML).  It was designed to inhibit the BCR/ABL fusion protein, ...

View more: Clinical Cancer Drugs Identified As Inhibitors Of Inflammatory Signaling

Over 100 different species made this 2,200-year-old shipwreck home, study finds

Ship's ram from First Punic War serves as "ecological memory" of 2 millennia of underwater life.

View more: Over 100 different species made this 2,200-year-old shipwreck home, study finds

The Great Reset: Support for Populist Politics “Collapsed” Globally During the COVID Pandemic

Support for populist parties and politicians, and agreement with populist sentiment, has diminished during the pandemic, according to a “mega-dataset” taking in attitudes of over half a million people across 109 countries since 2020. A University of Cambridge team say there are clear signs of a turning tide for ...

View more: The Great Reset: Support for Populist Politics “Collapsed” Globally During the COVID Pandemic

Pfizer and Moderna expect seasonal booster shots after omicron wave

Seasonal COVID boosters may be combined with flu shots in the future, Moderna says.

View more: Pfizer and Moderna expect seasonal booster shots after omicron wave

NASA Analysis: 2021 Tied for 6th Hottest Year in Continued Warming Trend

My Science Life: Vice President Arthur Ellis – University Of California Office Of The President

How Mobile Phones Represent Your Social Network

Perspectives On Water-Energy Nexus Modeling

Trading Reproductive Potential For Survival? How Acidification Could Affect A Key Crustacean In The Future Ocean

Do Sports Fans Connect More With Endangered Species Mascots?

Toddlers Prefer Those Who Win Fairly But Are Averse To Those Who Win By Force

Novel Methods To Minimize Coal Dust Exposure

Applications Of The Two-relaxation-time Lattice Boltzmann Method To Advective-Diffusive-Reactive Transport

Best Thunderbolt 4 docks in 2022: Expand your laptop

Implicating Dendritic Cells In The Pathogenesis Of Anterior Uveitis 

Solubility In Sub- And Supercritical Ethanol

OTHER TECH NEWS

;